El debate sobre si la ‘nueva ola’ desmejora el vallenato

El debate sobre si la ‘nueva ola’ desmejora el vallenato

Acordeoneros laureados, folcloristas e investigadores opinan sobre la relación entre lo tradicional y lo moderno en la parte instrumental y en las composiciones de las canciones. La industria musical y los festivales son telón de fondo.

Existe una discusión dentro de los conocedores y no conocedores del género sobre si el vallenato actual es una amenaza para el vallenato tradicional. La ‘nueva ola’ tiene unas particularidades en lo instrumental y el relato de las canciones, y su valoración genera polémica.

Durante décadas, las parrandas vallenatas estaban amenizadas por acordeón, caja y guacharaca. Luego entró el bajo. Y poco a poco se fueron incorporando otros instrumentos como la guitarra, el cencerro y el timbal. Las agrupaciones vallenatas trataban de asemejar lo que hacían las orquestas de salsa.

La ‘nueva ola’, que se dio en este siglo, sumó otros instrumentos como el sintetizador e incorporó en producciones musicales sonidos de otros géneros como los urbanos. Los cambios también se dieron en el relato de las composiciones que, según algunos autores y folcloristas, perdieron la poética de antaño.

El doble filo de la industrialización

La industria musical juega un papel importante en la modernización del vallenato. También la evolución de los medios. La radio, luego la televisión y ahora el internet han hecho que el vallenato suene más allá del Caribe colombiano. Al tiempo, se ha dado la “hibridación cultural y musical” del género.

Para el investigador Héctor González este proceso “ha provocado un desmejoramiento de la calidad de la expresión tradicional -en lo literario y en lo musical- al imponer clichés y estereotipos”. Y agrega que “los mercaderes de la industria fonográfica hacen primar el lucro antes que el valor artístico y por ello privilegian la pequeña inversión que produzca altos dividendos”.

El investigador Félix Carrillo se opone a esta visión y asegura que “existe una industrialización en el vallenato porque el disquero debe producir para vender”. Señala el ejemplo de Diomedes Díaz, que obtuvo el disco con mayor venta en el vallenato. “A Diomedes le decían los críticos que él no cantaba, pero ninguno vendía como él”.

Agrega que el lenguaje de las canciones vallenatas no es una cosa de hoy, sino que ha variado a lo largo de la historia. Esta modernización del vallenato puede jugar como arma de doble filo. Por una parte, el vallenato se populariza y puede llegar a otros lugares, pero también puede perder su componente literario y musical, como lo menciona González.

La importancia de los festivales vallenatos

Allí es donde se vuelve importante la preservación del vallenato tradicional, que es patrimonio cultural inmaterial de la nación y de la humanidad. En este marco, los festivales vallenatos cumplen una labor de salvaguardia. El debate sobre si la ‘nueva ola’ desmejora el vallenato

Este mes, por ejemplo, se han desarrollado tres. En los municipios de El Paso y de Codazzi, Cesar,y en Riohacha, La Guajira. El primero se llama Festival Pedazo de Acordeón, rinde homenaje a Alejo Durán y premia al acordeonero completo (que toca y canta sus propias canciones, como los juglares) y al acordeonero aficionado.

En Codazzi, el Festival de Música Vallenata en Guitarra premió Trío aficionado, Trío profesional y Canción inédita. El de Riohacha, Festival Francisco El Hombre, reconoce a agrupaciones vallenatas, cantantes y acordeoneros con el grupo completo.

El rey de la categoría completa del Festival Pedazo de Acordeón, Omar Hernández, afirma que “afortunadamente existen los festivales como el Pedazo de Acordeón y de la Leyenda Vallenata que luchan por mantener lo tradicional del vallenato”.

Lo tradicional y lo moderno

Pero más allá de preservar lo tradicional a través de festivales, lo moderno también puede sugerir lo tradicional. El rey aficionado de Pedazo de Acordeón, Ricardo Socarrás, agrega que “quisiera que el vallenato sonara como antes, pero va en constante evolución y esta tarea de nosotros dentro de lo moderno es traer algo de lo tradicional”.

Hernández lo secunda diciendo que “en el vallenato casi todo está hecho. Y lo comercial sale de lo tradicional”. Junior Larios, rey del acordeón en el Festival Francisco el Hombre, afirma que “se pueden grabar vallenatos clásicos con arreglos modernos porque a la gente le gusta el vallenato viejo. Ese vallenato no aburre”.

Hay folcloristas como Álvaro Álvarez que creen que estos ritmos modernos del acordeón “son pases de mentira”. El escritor Alonso Sánchez Baute cree que el vallenato atraviesa una crisis porque antes había varias estrellas del género y “hoy el único es Silvestre Dangond”.

El mismo Dangond es más optimista y asegura que el vallenato ha incorporado nuevos sonidos que lo enriquecen. A esto se suma Félix Carrillo que agrega “el vallenato no está en crisis, eso es mentira, siempre ha habido público para cada generación que surge”.

Mientras avanza este debate, los acordeones siguen sonando en los festivales y en las canciones de todas las plataformas. El debate sobre si la ‘nueva ola’ desmejora el vallenato

47 comentarios en “El debate sobre si la ‘nueva ola’ desmejora el vallenato

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